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How to understand the basic knowledge of engraving and milling machine
Time: 2017-04-13 09:30:18    Browse times:
Engraving and milling machine (CNC engraving and milling machine) belongs to a large category of CNC machine tools. Engraving and milling machine can be carved, but also milling, is a highly efficient high-precision CNC machine tools. Traditionally, it is considered to be a small tool, high power and high speed spindle motor CNC milling machine. In many countries abroad, there is no concept of the use of engraving and milling machine, processing molds are based on machining center (computer gong) milling, but the processing center has its shortcomings, especially when using small tools to process small molds Powerless, and costly. At the beginning of the domestic only the concept of CNC engraving machine, engraving machine advantage in the carving, if the processing material hardness is relatively large will seem powerless. The appearance of the engraving and milling machine just to make up for a large gap in CNC machine tools. Borrowed in 2009 China's engraving and milling machine industry production capacity has more than 12,000 units / year, the output value of more than 1.8 billion RMB. At present, the production of CNC engraving and milling machine is mainly in Guangdong, Beijing and Zhejiang. 
  For the function of the engraving and milling machine there may be many people can not distinguish, especially for CNC engraving and milling machine, engraving machine, machining center (computer gong) in the three of them the specific function and operation of the difference, let Xiaobian to Analyze their difference for you. 
First, from the appearance of volume: 
  engraving machine the smallest; engraving and milling machine second, the larger 750-type machine is generally 2.2m * 2m; processing center volume, large 1690 machine volume in the 4m * 3m, small 850 The machine is also 2.5m * 2. 5m. 
    Second, from the concept: 
  engraving machine: its spindle speed is suitable for small tool processing, torque is relatively small, focusing on "carving" features, such as wood (specifically wood processing called wood carving machine), two-color board, acrylic board Hardness of the plate is not high, not suitable for large cutting large workpiece. At present, most of the products on the market under the banner of the products are mainly for the processing of handicrafts, low cost, because the accuracy is not high, not for mold development; but there are exceptions such as wafer engraving machine. 
    CNC engraving and milling machine: As the name suggests. It is possible to carve, but also milling, engraving machine on the basis of the increase in the spindle, servo motor power, bed bearing capacity, while maintaining the spindle of high speed, more importantly, high precision. Engraving and milling machine is also high-speed development, generally known as high-speed machine, cutting ability, processing accuracy is very high, but also direct processing hardness of HRC60 above the material, a molding. 
Processing Center: Hong Kong and Taiwan, Guangdong area called the computer gong, with a knife and automatic tool changer of a highly automated multi-function CNC machine tools. The first machining center appeared in the United States in 1958. It can realize the workpiece after a clamping can be milling, drilling, boring, reaming and tapping and other processes of centralized processing, the function of special emphasis on "milling." 
  Third, from the mechanical structure: the 
  general use of cantilevered machining center, engraving and milling machine and engraving machine generally multi-purpose gantry structure, gantry type is divided into pillars and fixed beam type, the current carving and milling machine to set the majority of beams. 
  Fourth, from the index data speaking: 
  1, the maximum spindle speed (r / min): Machining Center 8000; Engraving and milling machine the most common 30000, high-speed machines are higher than 30000; Engraving machine is generally the same with the engraving and milling machine, for high-light processing of the engraving machine can reach 80000, but that is not the general use of the electric spindle spindle. 
  2, the spindle power: the largest machining center, from a few kilowatts to tens of kilowatts; engraving and milling machine second, generally within ten kilowatts; engraving machine minimum. 
   3, the amount of cutting: the largest processing center, especially for heavy cutting, open rough; engraving and milling machine second, suitable for finishing; engraving machine minimum. 
  4, the speed: the carving and milling machines are more compact, and their speed and feed speed faster than the processing center, especially with high-speed motor with a linear motor speed up to 120m / min 
  5, precision: Cost and quality, the quality of the processing center need to achieve the accuracy requirements are higher than the other two. 
  6, from the processing size speaking: the table area can be a better response to this. The smallest table area (unit mm, the same below) at 830 * 500 (850 machine); the largest table area of the engraving and milling machine is 700 * 620 (750), the smallest is 450 * 450 (400 machine); engraving machine generally does not exceed 450 * 450, the common is 45 * 270 (250 machine). 
  7, from the application of the object: the processing center for the completion of a larger amount of milling parts of the processing equipment, large molds, hardness comparison of materials, but also for ordinary mold open; engraving and milling machine used to complete the smaller milling volume , Low-end engraving machine is biased towards wood, two-color plate, acrylic plate and other hardness is not high sheet processing, high-end for the chip, metal shell polishing and polishing. 
  8, the processing range recognized: processing center, engraving and milling machine can do non-metallic can do metal, and even engage in hardness mold, engraving machine can only do ordinary acrylic products and non-metallic products, generally direct supplies, Such as handicrafts, circuit boards and so on.   In front of the difference between the machine itself, the following give you to analyze the three models were suitable for processing which products, so you more accurate choice for your machine:   1. - CNC milling and machining center used to complete the larger Milling parts of the workpiece processing equipment   2.   - CNC engraving and milling machine for the processing of small milling or soft metal processing equipment 3. - High-speed cutting machine for the completion of the amount of medium milling, and milling the amount of grinding down to the lowest processing equipment in-   depth analysis of the The structure of the equipment can help us make the right choice   . - From the mechanical point of view, the   machine tool is divided into two parts, the moving part and the non-moving part: the table, the skateboard, the cross flower table and so on the moving part, Such as non-moving part   1, - CNC milling machining center:   non-moving part of the steel requirements are very good to move part of the steel requirements are very good   Advantages: can be heavy cutting; Disadvantages: the part of the same huge, sacrifice machine flexibility, For the small parts and fast feed can not do anything.   2, - CNC engraving and milling machine   non-moving part of the steel requirements of a good part of the steel to be flexible to the premise, as light as possible, while maintaining a certain degree of steel.   Advantages: can be relatively small processing, high precision machining. For soft metal can be high-speed processing; Disadvantages: due to poor steel can not be heavy cutting.   3, - high-speed cutting machine   non-moving part of the steel requirements are very good to move part of the steel requirements are better, and as light as possible.   Advantages: can be small and medium-sized cutting (example of the general φ10 flat knives, for the 45 steel (300) deep depth to 0. 75 for the better); Disadvantages: the right to use under the high efficiency, low cost, so that the amount of grinding into a very small. Improper use, will soon make the waste of the pile of tools like mountains.   How to do from the mechanical above the light, rigid and contradictory requirements, the key lies in the mechanical structure of the effort.   1, the bed with high and low ribs with the mesh structure, and some direct use of the honeycomb phase of the hexagonal mesh structure   2, - wide columns and beams, we all know that the gantry structure because of its excellent Of the symmetry and excellent steel is high-speed cutting equipment manufacturers have been the preferred structure.   3, - for the moving part of the NC milling with a significant difference is to widen the distance between a lot of rails and rails to overcome the problem of bad torque.   4, - from the material generally used Mihan that cast iron, that is, the cultivation of cast iron, in the pouring of molten iron by adding a certain percentage of silicon (Si) to change the internal structure of iron, making it more resistant to stamping, rigid Significantly increased.   5, the rigidity of the machine is mainly used to overcome the part of the high-speed movement in the non-moving part of the strong impact, so the rails, screw rods require some rough, and strengthen the connection part of the rigid   two - from the numerical analysis   1, - CNC milling machining center on the CNC system   requirements speed in general, the spindle speed 0 ~ 8000RPM about 2, - engraving and milling machine requires high-speed CNC system, spindle speed 3000 ~ 30000RPM about   3, high-speed cutting machine requires high-speed CNC system and excellent Of the servo motor characteristics, spindle speed 1500 ~ 30000RPM about   three, - programming software   from the software point of view, CNC milling processing center, high-speed cutting machine engraving and milling machines can use standard CAD / CAM software such as: MasterCam Cimatron PE UG, etc. <a I = 47> Milling machines usually think that Cimatron is better, the new version of the software fully examines the uniformity of the cutting amount of the tool at all times, especially the speed and smoothness of the knife entering the moment of work, (The followingError), the results and design graphics more paste, CAD part of a large number of intuitive use of three-dimensional solid modeling such as Solidworks, and then through the IGS into CAM software for processing.   But do not worry, CAD / CAM development speed is far better than the machine tool CNC development speed.   Engraving processing due to the special nature of the tool has a considerable angle control, with TYPE3 as well.   Four - knife automatic tool change and automatic   tooling requirements processing center is a decent noun, but I think the requirements of the knife must be combined with the actual.   Machining center is to complete a variety of processes in the automatic state of the NC equipment, mainly for some fixed high-volume production operations, if we process a lot of holes, teeth of the box, but also to do every day (a batch of the smallest 2 More than 100) that must be selected processing center, for the mold industry and small batch production units do not at every turn on the processing center, because too many manufacturers have seen the processing center, when the CNC milling to use, the use of knife to the NC The cost of the system is very simple, but the spindle and knife, air compressor and a variety of knife handle will increase the cost, so the difference between a device is greater than 100,000 yuan, and the programmer to be clear-headed. Otherwise the tragedy will occur, the problem is relatively increased a lot. Efficiency on how to produce the same variety of less than one or two hundred of the workpiece as far as possible not to use the processing center, the efficiency is too low.   There is no good way to improve efficiency, do not use the knife library, and will not cause artificial tool change error, only automatic knife control system, knife up a loaded, a button, machine tool, direct processing, error in the 0.001 ~ .0003μm, compared with the automatic time to change, Slow a little efficiency. If the machining center and no automatic tool set machine tool with no knife library, but the automatic tooling machine compared to the efficiency of the latter is much higher than the former. Please pay attention to the best knife on the price of the best knife, such as (Marposs), but about 10,000 yuan, and is unlikely to be damaged, so the analysis of the labor for a lot of domestic mold processing, and small batch of industrial parts processing if Full consideration of the use of funds must not use the processing center equipment, in addition, the domestic manufacturers of the knife is basically a lot of problems. Import is also quite expensive (BT40 10 knife library will not be less than 100,000 yuan).   5, high-speed cutting   equipment, smart processors will certainly take a lot of time to consider the machine's preparation time and personnel of the human factors caused by the loss, we always remember not to remind them in this regard. And we should do it from the machine's processing time to give them higher processing efficiency, as well as possible to reduce their grinding time. Even zero polished. High-speed cutting equipment debut is to let the processor slammed the event. Do not consider its costly cost (1.5 million or so), from the use of speaking I think it must be the old saying goes: it is for some people is a fragrant meat, for some other people is poisonous poison , The Japanese and the Europeans spared no effort to promote the benefits of high-speed cutting and let people use their equipment. Of course there are some practical practices. In the CNC machine tool industry within 8 years of actual combat experience told me that their cost should be about 60 to 70 million. So high the profit rate is to let me see their essence. Domestic gross profit of CNC machine tools should be (30 ~ 40%) between. This is reasonable, honest profit. If you are willing to maintain their high profits I would like to be able to earn more money at the same time. But also to consider after-sales service and so on. I can not believe that their services can be in 1 to 2 days to solve all the problems. Because our existing technology can not achieve "solid fax" The   From the perspective of the revitalization of national industry should support the development of domestic machine tool plant. The nature of high-speed cutting is to walk the length of the tool in a short time to finish. We know the   distance = speed × time the   description of the tool has been fixed country cutting the way to decide a long time means that no profit can improve the speed is equivalent to shorten the time.   High-speed cutting due to the current machine's own spindle and the use of the tool limit it can not be sure that the current foreign common practice is the first device does not use high-speed cutting, and the second or third can be considered This kind of equipment.   Successful practices   such as: 1 copy milling to complete the majority of cutting (heavy cutting) and left in the 2 ~ 3mm processing margin, the remaining cutting speed in the high-speed machine to complete quickly, this has many advantages:   1 ) - heavy cutting machine tools, processing fees are very low   2) - processing capacity, the accuracy requirements are not high easy to reach   3) - tool cheap   4) - into high-speed cutting, because the processing object is close to forming, So the cutting amount of the first knife is very uniform   5) - forming fast and accurate   6) - avoid too much grinding, with the size of precision   7) - Although the tool is expensive, but the time is short, the amount of cutting is not good, the performance price ratio is very good   8) - a lot of subtleties, such as small angle conductivity, etc., meticulous processing once completed without spark to help fast,   9) - excellent surface finish (mirror effect)   It seems that the coordination of equipment is To win the way, because its remaining amount of 2 to 3 mm so on the table XY to do two calibration G54 baffle to complete the workpiece clamping problem, and for the small amount of workpiece is directly at high speed The machine is finished.   Six, there is a problem to discuss the problem is the spindle I = 61> 1 copy milling to complete the majority of cutting (heavy cutting) and left in the 2 ~ 3mm processing margin, the remaining cutting speed in the high-speed machine to complete quickly, this has many advantages: 1) - heavy cutting machine tools, processing fees are very low 2) - large processing capacity, high precision is not easy to reach 3) - cheap tool 4) - into the high-speed cutting, because the processing object is close to forming, so The first knife of the cutting volume is very uniform 5) - forming fast and accurate 6) - avoid too much grinding, with the size of precision 7) - Although the tool is expensive, but the time is short, the amount of cutting is not good, the performance and price ratio is very good 8 ) - a lot of subtleties, such as the small angle of the conductivity, etc., meticulous processing once completed without spark to help fast, 9) - excellent surface finish (mirror effect) So, the coordination of equipment is to win Of the way, because of its remaining capacity of 2 to 3 mm so on the table XY to do two calibration G54 baffle to complete the workpiece clamping problem, and for the small amount of workpiece is directly on the high-speed machine finished. Six, there is a problem to discuss the problem is the spindle I = 61> 1 copy milling to complete the majority of cutting (heavy cutting) and left in the 2 ~ 3mm processing margin, the remaining cutting speed in the high-speed machine to complete quickly, this has many advantages: 1) - heavy cutting machine tools, processing fees are very low 2) - large processing capacity, high precision is not easy to reach 3) - cheap tool 4) - into the high-speed cutting, because the processing object is close to forming, so The first knife of the cutting volume is very uniform 5) - forming fast and accurate 6) - avoid too much grinding, with the size of precision 7) - Although the tool is expensive, but the time is short, the amount of cutting is not good, the performance and price ratio is very good 8 ) - a lot of subtleties, such as the small angle of the conductivity, etc., meticulous processing once completed without spark to help fast, 9) - excellent surface finish (mirror effect) So, the coordination of equipment is to win Of the way, because of its remaining capacity of 2 to 3 mm so on the table XY to do two calibration G54 baffle to complete the workpiece clamping problem, and for the small amount of workpiece is directly on the high-speed machine finished. Six, there is a problem to discuss the problem is the spindle I = 69> 8) - a lot of nuances, such as small angle conductivity, etc., meticulous processing once completed without spark to help fast, 9) - excellent surface finish (mirror effect) It seems that the equipment Of the coordination of this is the way to win, because its remaining amount of 2 to 3 mm so on the table XY to do two calibration G54 baffle to complete the workpiece clamping problem, and for the small amount of workpiece It is completed directly at high speed machine. Six, there is a problem to discuss the problem is the spindle I = 69> 8) - a lot of nuances, such as small angle conductivity, etc., meticulous processing once completed without spark to help fast, 9) - excellent surface finish (mirror effect) It seems that the equipment Of the coordination of this is the way to win, because its remaining amount of 2 to 3 mm so on the table XY to do two calibration G54 baffle to complete the workpiece clamping problem, and for the small amount of workpiece It is completed directly at high speed machine. Six, there is a problem to discuss the problem is the spindle

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